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外国学生谈如何快速阅读

精品课程 黎老师 2年前 (2018-12-21) 9985次浏览 已收录 45个评论

我在圣经学院读书时,曾有一位客座教授来向我们教授如何进行快速阅读。那时我并不特别需要这种技能,因为所学课程中的大多数补充阅读类作业都不超过 500 页;但我像玩室内游戏的心态试着进行练习。但当我进入普林斯顿神学院的研究所之后,一切都变得不同了,我需要阅读与 5、6 本教科书相关的其他一些上千页的书籍。我这才开始认真对待快速阅读这件事。下面这些是我当时练习的一些技巧,我也是在后来才重新拾起这些内容的。在这之前的首要任务是处理掉一直以来我们心里关于阅读的疑问。

关于阅读的疑问

阅读是线性的。

我过去常将阅读描绘成是一个线性的过程;如你所知,按照设定好的顺序,从最前面开始煎熬到印刷的最后一页。相比于思考(我后来发现写作也一样,很少作家是从最前面开始写的,甚至他们常常从第一部分的最后开始写起),阅读并不具有更多的线性。

真正的阅读是一个字一个字的。

当我还是个孩子时,我从单个字母开始阅读。但这并没有特别管用。接着我开始大声读每个音节出来。最后我可以阅读整个单词。但为何我们在单词这里就停止了?唔,我知道其中一个原因…我的一位大学教授曾让我们发誓说我们读过了补充阅读里的“每个单词”。为什么?他没有让我们发誓说我们曾读过了“每个字母”。答案很简单:教授从未从阅读字母、音节与单词转移到阅读词语、句子和段落。他认为彻底阅读的道路只有一条:一次阅读一个单词这样让人费劲的办法。

阅读很费力而且需要花费很长时间。

这是错误的观点。阅读可以很有趣并且很快。甚至快速阅读像是开赛车,他更让人激动。

一本书的每个部分的价值都一样。

这个问题只有在你写过自己的书之后才能破解。那时候你就会知道这其中有一些“填充物”,例如插图和其他一些东西等将每个章节堵住的内容,这都是出版商要求添加的。比如引言。出版商要求在每个长长的故事之前来用引言来介绍一个你已经了解的结论?唔,在阅读时你可以快速跳过它。

更快的阅读会降低记忆力。

很抱歉,这事倒是真的,有问题?那些费劲心力通读一本书甚至动嘴将每个单词都读出来的人,应该获得一些更棒的奖励,不是吗?再次抱歉。事实上,快速阅读技巧能够提升一个人的理解能力与记忆力。

准备阅读

我们准备开始阅读。但请先别开始读书的内容。这里还有一些需要预先完成的步骤。

消除所有干扰因素。

除了阅读内容以外的任何可能引起你思考或注意的内容都应该移除。旁边有人在对话?聚会?电视?或者是一个不舒服的座位?背景音乐?(OK OK,我知道很多读者是大学学生,会常常强调听着背景音乐他们会“学得更好”。你可以继续这么认为,但这是错误的。可能你会“喜欢”这种方式,但你并没有学得更好。任何可能占据你大脑的东西都会降低你的注意力,哪怕是在“大脑的背景”里降低!如果你愿意骗自己的话那就继续吧,但如果你真的愿意认真对待快速阅读,消除这些干扰因素吧。)

问你自己:我的目的是什么?

为何读这本书?它属于哪类作品?传统作品或是用来消遣时间的虚构作品?为何要匆匆地读完它?像吃悠闲晚餐一样,坐好后一口一口地慢慢品尝,在大脑中慢慢将这些可口的段落反复思考。或是某门课的补充阅读,你对它的中心思想一定比较熟悉。想一下阅读这本书的原因。或是即将会对这些补充阅读进行考试?也许是为了寻找一些新的想法而阅读?又或者是你需要为他写一篇书评。最后还可能是你要向他人教授它。每次阅读时的目的有很多种,对吧?在你打开书之前,花一分钟时间告诉自己你阅读它的目的。它能很大程度上决定,从此刻起,你将会如何阅读这本书。

先来个 10 分钟的浏览。

花上 10 分钟或是更少的时间先浏览一下整本书。如果你还没这么做过,那就先完成它吧。将每本书当作是一个七巧板。将所有内容倒出来,在将所有内容重新置于一处之前先把所有页面进行组织。阅读封面以及封面上的所有书评。然后浏览一下作者简介。直接翻至目录页并看看能否从该页了解到全书的所有内容。浏览全部的摘要、表格、可移出的注释、图表(很重要),并粗略地阅读完全不章节的标题。

直到你找到了关键章节。一些出版商曾经这样说(当然是私下里):一本书就是一个简单并且主要的章节再加上一打其他填料章节。如果真是这样,我们需要找到这个章节。

阅读关键章节。

使用后面我们要讲到的快速阅读技巧通读整个关键章节。在读完这一章之前你没必要读完其他所有的章节,就像吃冰激凌的时候你一定会先吃掉上面的绿豆。这本书是你的,继续阅读然后在开始之前了解它的中心思想。

一旦读完关键章节,你就可以接着读完剩下的内容。按照从第一章至最后一章的顺序,或者以其他适合你目的的顺序都可以。接下来是一些实际的阅读小技巧。

快速阅读技巧

提升你的速度,直至你感觉不舒服为止。

在一辆车里开得多快会让你觉得不舒服,像是“处于边缘”的感觉?70 迈?90?120?210 迈感觉如何,印第安赛车的平均速度?知道重点了吧?一些人能通过学习而开得更快,他们的舒适度水平上升了。你也可以在阅读方面做同样的事情。你应该清楚地了解,快速阅读的关键并不在于技巧;而在于你的想法。确实这可能是你在阅读时可以播放 CD 的原因,相当于你在以 25 迈的速度在开车。你能想象一辆印第安赛车手会在比赛时播放背景音乐吗?当然不会。车手会集中注意力在他的赛道上。当然,如果你在周日下午在书中闲逛的话,请忽略以上内容。但如果你很认真的想要成为一位快速阅读者,那么就应该对自己有更高的要求。

将这本书看作是装满矿石的矿山,而不是黄金山!

书籍提供给探索者美妙的黄金。但阅读者必须自己将成吨的矿石分类过滤并从中得到黄金。快速阅读者改变了思路:停止在矿山里的无目的闲逛,快速寻找黄金。书籍是什么东西?单词是什么东西?他们是携带着真理、思想、灵感、论点、信息、规则、概念以及观念。我们读书为乐获取信息,而不是纠缠于这些单词中。你的思路需要转变,我们的目的是寻找其中的黄金。

停止默读。

大多数人是通过将单词大声读出来而学会阅读的。麻烦在于,大部分人都停止不了出声读。当然,或许我们已经不会再听见读出来的声音,或者仅仅动动嘴唇,但在我们的大脑中我们是在“将文字都给自己听”。我们通过嘴巴和耳朵学会阅读。要成为快速阅读者,这个习惯必须要戒掉或者至少降低它的出现次数,采取眼睛结合大脑的方法。总的来说这是一个关于想法的问题。不要再将耳朵当作直达内心的途径,眼睛才是去往内心的大门。开始用你的眼睛在书中吸收知识。让书中的内容通过眼睛直达你的内心(大脑),停止嘴巴和耳朵的动作。努力试着去做吧。

使用你的手指。

对于这一项,大多数快速阅读者都会很吃惊。他们还记得在学校里通过手指阅读并且认为这种方式降低了阅读的速度。事实上手指相当于你的引导车。它能快速地在前面引导你,保持你的注意力在这里并避免回跳阅读。有多重方法来使用你的手指(或者手),但我们建议你尝试像新手那样使用它。当你有了提高,可以买一本关于快速阅读的书并确立确定最适合你的方案。

戒掉回跳阅读的习惯。

大多数人习惯于线性阅读方式来理解句子,但阅读时我们的眼睛会时不时的跳回来细想那些跳过的内容。我们常常在毫无知觉的情况下这么做。统计回跳次数最好的方法就是当你阅读的时候找人看着并帮你计数,仔细数数阅读时到底有多少次回跳。当然,除非你觉得有人在你阅读时盯着你的脸会很不舒服,要不然就请相信我,你很可能会有回跳阅读的习惯。如何戒掉它?首先你得承认你会这样做。然后再次这么做的时候你要意识到自己正在做这件事。最后,当你发现自己在阅读时想要回跳时,你就假装自己在看电影,看过的就过去了你不能将影片再倒回去重新看一遍。

使用你的外围视觉。

就像你的肌肉需要在健身房里锻炼一样,你的大脑也可以被训练成使用眼睛作为入口来接受大量的数据信息。比如说,你可以认为存在一个由上至下贯穿整个页面的竖线,然后你可以顺着这条线来阅读,而不是传统的从左至右按照每行进行阅读的方式。使用你眼睛的外围视觉来阅读左侧或右侧的词语。你能做到吗?在练习时你可以训练用大脑阅读“道路两边的全部内容”,即使你的眼睛处于最中间那条线上。大多数快速阅读者为了练习这个技能都需要在书页上画一条从页面直达下方的竖线,直到他们不需要这条线也能掌握这项技能。你的大脑可以通过非直接查看内容而获取其中的信息,就像你“看着”马路的两边的同时开着一辆汽车。

学会阅读关键词语。

每页里 40%到 60%的词语都不具有决定性或重要性。甚至当有人把这些内容移除掉,你仍然可以知道整段文字是在讲什么。既然你知道那些词语是最关键最重要的,那么你肯定能够将其他词语忽略并在心里将其变为空白内容(即直接忽视不进行阅读)。通过训练你的大脑寻找这些关键词语,你的阅读速度一定会有很大的提升。

停止公交式停站(眼睛休息)。

当你的眼睛进行线式阅读时会不自觉地定期停下来,就像在某个单词上面休息。儿童的眼睛会在每个单词上面休息,因为他们正在学习阅读。长大后,当你阅读时你会像割草机一样顺畅地移动眼睛,在某个单词上只有刹那的停留,然后突然再次缩回去。绝大多数阅读者都有这种习惯,但类似公交在每个转弯处停站一样,它明显降低了阅读的速度。试着让你的眼睛在读过 3-4 行文字后再进行休息,或者任意你觉得效果更好的行数,保持眼睛在多行文字间顺畅地移动,大脑沿着这条线不断地获取知识。

适时地休息。

科学研究已经证明连续数小时的阅读,其效率远不如上每小时进行 5 分钟休息后的阅读效果,这个时间段可以更短一些。坐下来后在接下来的 1 小时中阅读 100 页内容,预先设定好闹钟,等到了 60 分钟时记得奖励自己一块饼干或者三明治。

设定一个时间点。

有 300 页内容要读?预先确定好要以什么样的速度阅读它。如果你不是一个快速阅读者,或许你可以按照美国人的平均阅读速度来计算你的时间点:每分钟一页内容(250 个单词/分钟)。或者你觉得自己的速度在平均值之上,设定每小时 100 页内容试试吧。如果你选择了每小时阅读 100 页,那意味着每半小时就得读完 50 页,每 10 分钟 17 页或者每分钟 1.7 页。保持这个状态,想象自己在一辆赛车上,替自己加油,集中注意力,你的阅读始终会在掌控之中。放胆去做吧,这会让你无比地兴奋。

记忆的技巧

下划线,画圆圈,在旁边做笔记。

别再像学生时代那样在整页的内容上面画重点。通常来说,每页最好不超过 2 或 3 个重点标记,同时大部分页面里不应该出现标记。在书上做标记便于以后的回顾,你有没有做过标记的圣经?如果有的话,当你回顾的时候,你应该可以在大脑中“看见”那个页面。这就是做标记的好处。(高亮也具有同样的效果,无论如何,标记是很管用的东西。)

将重要页面折叠。

在一本 250 页的书里有 25 页的页脚被叠起来,这样的数量是合适的。折叠的面积越大代表该页内容越重要。大多数书应该只有 4 到 5 页是处于半张纸都叠起来的状态。

将关键笔记写在书的最前面。

这一点很容易理解吧?中心思想?这些的内容能否代表整本书?将它们写在书的最前面吧。想知道为什么?通常来说,每当遇到新的信息,你要么在 20 分钟内使用它,要么就在 20 分钟内忘掉它。当你发现这样的内容时,翻到书的最前面并将它写下来;这会帮你在心里巩固这个概念。更好的办法是,将它与你已知的内容联系起来并写下来。相比于孤立性的内容,有相关性的更容易让你回想起来。

阅读结束时,重新阅读折叠起来的页面。

返回并重新阅读这些黄金内容。这些是整本书的全部精华(前提是你的判断是完全正确的话)。

在书的最前面或最后面写下摘要。

大功告成了!你可以抽空去吃块皮萨,唔,稍等一下。还需要你花费很少的时间来写一个摘要,在最前面用你自己的语言。当书籍作者为这本书提交最初的方案时,他会先写一个关于整本书内容的提纲。为了给这本书做一个总结概括,你需要采用“逆向工程”的方法来让这本书回到作者最初抽象化的观点。

考虑为这本书画一个思维脑图。

如果你要参加关于这本书的考试,找个人教你如何使用 Tony Buzan 的 Mind Map 吧,它能帮你在一张纸上记住这本书的全部内容。记住,你需要在脑中回忆的应该是那些观点以及图像,而非句子。思维脑图能帮你将整本书图像化(如果你只是简单地遵从这篇文章里的建议,这个图像化的内容并不是必需的)。

如果你的书是借别人的。

不能在上面做标记或者折叠书页,你可以使用便签纸来代替折叠书页,你可以在上面写下任何你想写的评论。

记住下面这些:快速阅读并不是什么特别神秘的技巧,你完全可以在 10 分钟内掌握它。假如你现在 1 分钟内可以阅读 1000 个单词,那么通过学习快速阅读术,或许能让你在未来的两周时间内阅读速度提高整整一倍。但如果你想变成一个终身的快速阅读者(就像成为一个熟练的赛车手)需要一定的时间,以及集中精力还有更多的联系。这篇文章只是教你入门,但要想成为专家,则需要大量的联系。


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